Peoples in now

"Hai My Friends .Your Comments are My Blog Life
Impression So Please Give Your All Comments"

Top Songs Of 2012

The song has received positive reviews from critics who complimented the song’s effective lyrics and chorus, and commended Ludacris’ part and the song’s ability to have an urban twist.

Most Visited Websites 2011-2012

Google Search or Google Web Search is a web search engine owned by Google Inc. Google Search is the most-used search engine on the World Wide Web, receiving several hundred million queries each day through its various services.

History of Facebook

Mark Zuckerberg wrote Facemash, the predecessor to Facebook, on October 28, 2003, while attending Harvard as a sophomore. According to The Harvard Crimson, the site was comparable to Hot or Not, and "used photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine houses.

Airtel 3G 70% less in Kerala Plans

First time users please follow the steps as given below to go 3G in Kerala:- » Select network settings to "automatic" on your handset » Choose "3G only mode" and wait for network registration. » After registration and seeing 3G network on your handset, Select "Dual Mode" or "3G and 2G mode" to enjoy 3G .

Aakash Tablet is Available For Booking

You can Order your Aakash Tablet now. The long wait for Aakash Tablet is now over. Now you can book your Aakash Tablet online which will be delivered within a week from the day of booking. Aakash was the most awaited Indian Tablet, which took many people’s attention all over the world.

Showing posts with label Computer. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Computer. Show all posts

Full Version Free Video Converter-Free Download Need4 Video Converter

Need4 Video Converter screenshot

  •  Convert video and DVDs - personal and non-copyrighted only - between all popular formats: you can use Need4 Video Converter as an avi converter, mp4 converter, mpeg converter, vob to avi, or wmv to avi converter! Move videos between avi, divx, xvid, dvd, h.264, mpg, mpeg-2, mpeg, mp4, ifo, vob, flv, m2v, dat, vcd, svcd, mov, qt, wmv, asf, 3gp, 3gpp, 3g2, 3gp2, dv, mpe, m1v, flv, h261, h263, m4v, mts, m2t, mkv, vro, NEW! webm, ogv, swf.

  • Convert video in HD formats. Choose ready-made presets for all popular HD video formats or adjust the settings manually.

  • Rip unprotected DVDs to watch the movies on your computer or mobile devices. Set your DVD source options such as audio track and subtitles.

  • Convert unprotected video and DVDs using ready-made presets for various devices and portable media players: iPod, iPad, iPhone, PSP, Zune, BlackBerry, Archos, Creative ZEN, iriver, Explay, SanDisk Sansa, Cowon, Sony Walkman, PDA - Dell, HP, Palm, cell phones - Nokia, Samsung, Sony Ericsson, LG, etc., HTC, Motorola, PlayStation 3, Xbox 360, NEW! Tablets, Android phones, Windows Phone 7, Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 and many other devices.

  • Burn all added videos to DVD and Blu-ray discs. (To burn the videos straight from Video Converter you'll need to have Need4 DVD Burner installed on your computer).

  • Easily customize output format settings for each of the added videos and get a required video quality with Need4 Video Converter.

  • Merge multiple videos in one longer movie and convert any segment of your video or DVD.

  • NEW! Select audio tracks for MKV, AVI, MP4, MPEG, and WMV video files.

  • Convert multiple video and dvd files using super-fast video conversion technology with multithreading and batch conversion.

    System requirements:

    Microsoft Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7.
    Intel or AMD or compatible processors at 1.5 GHz or higher
    RAM: 256 Mb or higher
    1 GB of free hard disk space.
    Internet connection for program activation.

    Download Need4 Video Converter

  • How to Make a Perfect DVD Disk With Nero

    How to Make a Perfect DVD Disk With Nero

    • First You want know about the nero dvd format
    • Nero dvd video fomat is .vob . It is the only format that can burn with nero 
    • So first you want to find a best converter for your video so just download 
    • Any best converter Eg: Total Video Converter 
    • Then you go and open your nero and make dvd

    What is-Central Processing Unit-CPU
    The central processing unit(CPU) is the brain of any computer. It carries out all the processing in the computer. Central Processing Unit itself consists of three main subsystems. The first one is Control Unit, the second is Registers, and the third is Arithmetic and Logic Unit(ALU).
    A CPU works in a fetch execute cycle. On power on, the CPU fetches the first instruction from a location specified by the program counter. This instruction is brought into instruction register which is decoded by the control unit. Based on the instruction, the control unit would either fetch the operand and or carry out arithmetic or logical operations on it, or store the result of such an operation into a specified memory location. After one instruction is executed the next instruction is fetched by the processor and executed. This process goes on till the processor does not come to an halt instruction. A real life processor would have large number of registers, sophisticated microprogram control unit and a sophisticated arithmetic and logic unit. Most powerful processors currently popular are from from Intel, Pentium III and Pentium IV.

    1st To 5th Generation Computers-Features of 1st to 5th computer generation

                                      First Generation (1941-1956)
    World War gave rise to numerous developments and started off the computer age. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was produced by a partnership between University of Pennsylvania and the US government. It consisted of 18,000 vacuum tubes and 7000 resistors. It was developed by John Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly and was a general purpose computer. "Von Neumann designed the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC) in 1945 with a memory to hold both a stored program as well as data." Von Neumann's computer allowed for all the computer functions to be controlled by a single source.
    Then in 1951 came the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC I), designed by Remington rand and collectively owned by US census bureau and General Electric. UNIVAC amazingly predicted the winner of 1952, presidential elections, Dwight D. Eisenhower.
    In first generation computers, the operating instructions or programs were specifically built for the task for which computer was manufactured. The Machine language was the only way to tell these machines to perform the operations. There was great difficulty to program these computers and more when there were some malfunctions. First Generation computers used Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums (for data storage).

    The IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Calculator

                         Second Generation Computers (1956-1963)
    The invention of Transistors marked the start of the second generation. These transistors took place of the vacuum tubes used in the first generation computers. First large scale machines were made using these technologies to meet the requirements of atomic energy laboratories. One of the other benefits to the programming group was that the second generation replaced Machine language with the assembly language. Even though complex in itself Assembly language was much easier than the binary code.
    Second generation computers also started showing the characteristics of modern day computers with utilities such as printers, disk storage and operating systems. Many financial information was processed using these computers.
    In Second Generation computers, the instructions (program) could be stored inside the computer's memory. High-level languages such as COBOL (Common Business-Oriented Language) and FORTRAN (Formula Translator) were used, and they are still used for some applications nowadays.

    The IBM 7090

    The IBM 7090, announced in 1958, was a transistorized version of the vacuum-tube-logic 709 and the first commercial computer with transistor logic (the first such computing device, according to , was the IBM 608, but that was not a general-purpose stored-program computer).
    Grayson Kirk, President of Columbia University (right) and Kenneth M. King, director of the University's new Computer Center, 1963, in the machine room at the IBM 7090 console, "one of the largest computers in existence" at the time. Photo: found in an unattributed newspaper clipping in the Columbiana archive.

    The IBM 7090 Console in the Columbia Computer Center machine room, 1966. Pictured: A group of particle physicists who discovered the violation of charge-conjugation invariance in interactions of intermediate strength: Charles Baltay and Lawrence Kirsch of Nevis Lab (back row); Juliet Lee-Franzini of SUNY Stony Brook and team leader Paulo Franzini of Nevis Lab 

    Third Generation Computers (1964-1971)
    Although transistors were great deal of improvement over the vacuum tubes, they generated heat and damaged the sensitive areas of the computer. The Integrated Circuit(IC) was invented in 1958 by Jack Kilby. It combined electronic components onto a small silicon disc, made from quartz. More advancement made possible the fittings of even more components on a small chip or a semi conductor. Also in third generation computers, the operating systems allowed the machines to run many different applications. These applications were monitored and coordinated by the computer's memory.

    The IBM 360/91
    Installation of the IBM 360/91 in the Columbia Computer Center machine room in February or March 1969. Photo: AIS archive.

                                       Fourth Generation (1971-Present)
    Fourth Generation computers are the modern day computers. The Size started to go down with the improvement in the integrated circuits. Very Large Scale (VLSI) and Ultra Large scale (ULSI) ensured that millions of components could be fit into a small chip. It reduced the size and price of the computers at the same time increasing power, efficiency and reliability. "The Intel 4004 chip, developed in 1971, took the integrated circuit one step further by locating all the components of a computer (central processing unit, memory, and input and output controls) on a minuscule chip."
    Due to the reduction of cost and the availability of the computers power at a small place allowed everyday user to benefit. First, the minicomputers which offered users different applications, most famous of these are the word processors and spreadsheets, which could be used by non-technical users. Video game systems like Atari 2600 generated the interest of general populace in the computers.
    In 1981, IBM introduced personal computers for home and office use. "The number of personal computers in use more than doubled from 2 million in 1981 to 5.5 million in 1982. Ten years later, 65 million PCs were being used." Computer size kept getting reduced during the years. It went down from Desktop to laptops to Palmtops. Mackintosh introduced Graphic User Interface in which the users don’t have to type instructions but could use Mouse for the purpose.
    The continued improvement allowed the networking of computers for the sharing of data. Local Area Networks (LAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN) were potential benefits, in that they could be implemented in corporations and everybody could share data over it. Soon the internet and World Wide Web appeared on the computer scene and fomented the Hi-Tech revolution of 90's.

    Desktop Computer.

                                          Fifth generation computers

    Fifth generation computers are mainly future computers. Of course some modern computers also belong to this generation. The aim of these computers is to develop devices that respond to natural language input and are capable of learning and self-organization. In these computers massive numbers of CPUs are used for more efficient performance. Voice recognition is a special feature in these computers. By using superconductors and parallel processing computer geeks are trying to make artificial intelligence a reality. Quantum computing, molecular and nanotechnology will change the face of computers in the coming years.

    TechSmith Snagit 9 For Screen Recored

    TechSmith Snagit 9

    I like softwares. So also with this application. I was a student with a lot of tasks. Every week there are tasks waiting. I need an application that helps me to facilitate the completion of the tasks that I can. I want the tasks I was clear. So, I insert a picture from a few pieces I tasks. If I use the old technique, I will spend a lot of time. TechSmith Snagit 9 is the solution. In this article, I'll explain about this application. TechSmith Snagit 9 is an application that can capture an image of anything your screen.

    These are System Requirements from TechSmith Snagit 9

    -Microsoft Windows 2000, XP, XP x64, Vista, or Windows 7 (32-bit or 64-bit) installed and configured on your system. ~ Recommended:
    -Internet Explorer 6.0 or later required
    -Windows 2000 users require Windows Installer 2.0. Click here for more details
    -1.0 GHz processor (2.4 GHz recommended
    -512 MB of RAM (1 GB recommended)
    -6-0 MB of free hard disk space (100 MB for CDROM installations due to video tutorials)
    -SnagIt add-ins for Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint and Outlook work with Office 2000, Office XP or
    -SnagIt add-in for Microsoft Internet Explorer works with Internet Explorer 6.0 or later
    -SnagIt plug-in for Adobe FrameMaker works with FrameMaker
    -SnagIt requires Active Accessibility 2.0 to capture links from web pages.

    Computer Output Devices

    Here are some examples of output devices.

    Monitor - A monitor is the screen on which words, numbers, and graphics can be seem.  The monitor is the most common output device.

    Compact Disk - Some compact disks can be used to put information on.  This is called burning information to a CD.
    NOTE:  A CD can also be an input device.

    Printer - A printer prints whatever is on the monitor onto paper.  Printers can print words, numbers, or pictures.

    Speaker - A speaker gives you sound output from your computer.  Some speakers are built into the computer and some are separate.

    Disk Drives - A disk drive is used to record information from the computer onto a floppy disk or CD.

    Floppy Disk - A floppy disk is used to record information on.  The information is stored on the floppy disk and can be used later or used on another computer.

    Headphones - Headphones give sound output from the computer.  They are similar to speakers, except they are worn on the ears so only one person can hear the output at a time.

    Computer Input Devices

    Camera - most cameras like this are used during live conversations.  The camera transmits a picture from one computer to another, or can be used to record a short video.
    Compact Disc (CD) - CDs store information.  The CD can then be put into another computer, and the information can be opened and added or used on the second computer.
    Note:  A CD-R or CD-RW can also be used as an OUTPUT device.
    Keyboard - The keyboard is a way to input letters or numbers into different applications or programs.  A keyboard also has special keys that help operate the computer.
    Mouse - The mouse is used to open and close files, navigate web sites, and click on a lot of commands (to tell the computer what to do) when using different applications.
    Digital Camera - A digital camera can be used to take pictures.  It can be hooked up to a computer to transfer the pictures from the camera to the computer.  Some digital cameras hold a floppy disk, and the floppy disk can be taken out of the camera and put directly into the computer.
    Drawing Tablet - A drawing tablet is similar to a white board, except you use a special pen to write on it and it's connected to the computer.  Then the word or image you draw can be saved on the computer.
    Microphone - A microphone is used to record sound.  The sound is then saved as a sound file on the computer.
    Scanner - A scanner is used to copy pictures or other things and save them as files on the computer. 
    Disk Drive - A disk drive can hold a CD or a floppy disk.  It reads the information on the disk so that the computer can use it.
    Joystick - A joystick is used to move the cursor from place to place, and to click on various items in programs.  A joystick is used mostly for computer games.
    Touch Screen - A touch screen is a computer screen or other screen that you can touch with your finger to enter information.  Examples of touch screens include a smart board, a microwave, a dishwasher, or an ATM at a bank.
    Bar Code Scanner - A bar code scanner scans a little label that has a bar code on it.  The information is then saved on the computer.  Bar code scanners are used in libraries a lot.

    Basics for safer downloading

    Whenever you download a file—whether you open a spreadsheet attached to an email message, grab a cool little screensaver or mouse cursor from the web, or download music or video files from someone else's computer—you could be putting your computer at risk.
    You can take some basic steps to protect your PC and your company's network:
    • Set up your computer with security protection. When you upgrade to Windows 7 from Windows XP, you automatically get a lot of security protection built right into the system.
    • Increase your awareness of attack methods so that you can be on the lookout for them.
    • Use tools to remove unwanted software that has been downloaded to your computer (despite your best efforts to prevent it).
    Here's how:

    1. Get ready: Strengthen your computer's defenses

    Start by checking with your system administrator to find out about your company's security tools and policies. Read the articles Understanding security and safer computing and How to boost your malware defense and protect your PC to get an overview of the kinds of threats that exist and what you can do to defend against them. Because new threats are identified every day, remember to keep your security components—including those on the following list—up to date.
    • Firewalls. These include hardware or software that checks information coming from the Internet and either turns it away or lets it pass. Firewalls are built into Windows XP Service Pack 2 and all later versions of the Windows operating system.
    • Antivirus protection. Viruses, worms, and Trojan horses are programs that use the Internet to infect vulnerable computers. Microsoft Security Essentials offers free, real-time protection for your PC against malicious software. Or choose an antivirus program from a list of Microsoft partners who provide anti-malware software.
    • Spyware protection. Spyware can display ads and pop-ups, collect information, and change your computer settings or default home page without you knowing about it. Use Windows Defender, which is available as a free download for Windows XP Service Pack 2 and is built into later versions of Windows. Or install your own antispyware program.
    • Software updates. Regular updates to Windows help protect your computer against new viruses and other security threats. Be sure you're using the latest version of your web browser, and turn on the browser's security features.
    • Email spam filters. Microsoft Outlook includes a junk email filter, as do many other email programs, along with additional features that can help block unwanted messages, disable links, and warn you about threatening content.

    2. Download with caution: Think first. Click later.

    With your computer's defenses strengthened, the rest is up to you. Here’s what you can do to protect your computer.
    • Beware of fraudulent email messages. Don't click links or open attachments unless you're sure of the source. In pop-up messages or warnings, click the Close box (close box) instead of OK or Agree to get rid of the box.
    • Only download from reputable sites. Be cautious about downloading from unknown sources and from sites containing objectionable material or too-good-to be-true offers. Microsoft Download Center, for example, is the best, safest source for Microsoft products. Bookmark it in your browser’s favorites, and check it out to find the most popular downloads, free trials, and newest software available from us.
    • Install and use file-sharing programs cautiously. When you use file-sharing programs to trade music, video, or other files on the web, you make some of your files—or even your entire hard disk drive—available to others using similar software.
    • Save files for safer downloads. . If you’ve decided to download a file from the Internet, save the file first to your hard drive. Then, when you attempt to open the file, your antivirus software can check the file and delete it if it detects potentially damaging code. To do this, in the File Download dialog box, click the Save button instead of the Run or Open button.

    3. Remove malicious software

    Sometimes, despite your best efforts, you may download a program you don't want. If this happens to you, here are some ways to get rid of it:
    • Run antispyware tools. Windows Defender, which is built into Windows Vista and Windows 7, reduces the likelihood of downloading spyware in the first place. If you are using another antispyware program, make sure it is up to date and then scan your system, following the instructions for removing suspicious software.
    • Run the malicious software removal tool. Users of earlier versions of Windows who suspect that malware is causing their computers to slow down or fail can use the Malicious Software Removal Tool to remove the malware.
    • Disable add-ons. Web browser add-ons can display things like toolbars and stock tickers but can also install spyware or other malicious software. In Internet Explorer, you can disable add-ons from the Tools menu. Click Manage Add-ons, select the one you want to disable, and then click Disable.
    Due to the changing nature of potential attacks, preventing malicious software from damaging your computer takes continuous vigilance. However, by installing and updating protection tools and by using caution when you work, you can help minimize the

    How Many MB Is 1 GB

    It is generally taken that 1000 Megabyte is equal to 1 Gigabyte just for the sake of convenience.

     But the correct quantity of 1 GB is 1024 MB. So, a 500 GB Hard Drive or a 2 GB memory of 

    RAM will not show that exact amount when you check their properties.

    How to increase your Laptop Battery's Life?

    Dear friends you have read many interesting tips from my site and I think you have gained more knowledge from them. Now I have a more interesting tip to increase your Laptop's battery life. There is no matter, laptop manufactures gives you the guarantee about the battery that how long it works. The battery of laptop always stops working very early at some stage in essential research, just like when you are watching a DVD movie. 
    Follow the few steps to increase the laptop battery's life: 
    Lower the backlighting on your screen.
    The screen of your Laptop takes up significant amount of power and you do not require its maximum brightness. You should have to check your system and decrease the screen brightness it to a comfortable point.
    Stop your wireless signal when you are not using. 
    After turning off your Laptop can save max. 20 minutes of your laptop's battery time because WiFi can use a considerable quantity of power. By right clicking you can stop your WiFi signal when you are not using.
    Manage the correct power scheme in XP
    Windows XP contain a number of predetermined power plans, which control settings like how rapidly your laptop turns off and when your screen saver boots in. You can change your laptop power scheme by choosing Control Panel > Power Options. For max. Battery life from the "Power scheme" chooses the option "Max. Battery" and decline the list. There are good choices for you just like "Low Power Mode" and Portable /Laptop. They don't conserve as much power as Max Battery. After selecting a power scheme you click Ok button to finish the process.

    How to find a lost file on your Computer

    Today tip will help you to enjoy the quick and easy way to find lost files on your computer. Here I recommends you, try to search a file with its file extensions (for example for word file, type *.doc, Excel *.xls, Acrobat *.pdf, *.ppt and *.exe for executable files. If you don't know the name of file but know that it contains a string of text then try to search for files containing specific text, type the text you want to find from any file or folder. This is time taking process but creates very precise result. In Look in, click the drive, folder, or network you want to search. To save time, always select the specified drive or location instead of whole computer.
    Click Start Button, point to Search, and then click For File or Folders, a Search Results dialog box will appear. In Search for files or folders named, type the file name or folder name you want to find in containing text.
    To specify additional search criteria, click Search Options, and then click one or more of the following options to narrow your search:
    • Select Date to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates.
    • Select Type to look for files of a specific type, such as a text or WordPad document.
    • Select Size to look for files of a specific size.
    • Select Advanced Options to specify additional search criteria.
    • Click Search now

    Protecting Document with Password

    You can protect your document by applying password so that unauthorized person can not display as well as modify your document. You can apply two types of passwords:
    Password to open the document: 
    If it is applied then you have to give the correct password to open the document, otherwise you cannot open the document.
    Password to modify the document: 
    If it is applied then you have to give the correct password to modify the document, otherwise your document is opened but you cannot modify the document. It means that your document becomes read-only.
    To apply a password to document, follow these steps.
    * Open Save As dialog box by selecting "Save As" command from File menu.
    * Click "Tools" button of Save As dialog box and choose "General Options" from drop down menu, "Save" dialog box appears as shown in figure below.
    * Enter first password in "Password to open" text box and second password in "Password to modify" text box (if required) and click "Ok" button of dialog box. Microsoft Word will open "Confirm Password" dialog box for the confirmation of passwords. The maximum length of password is 15 characters.
    * Re-enter the password to open and password to modify and click "Ok" button of Confirm Password dialog boxes one by one.
    * Click "Save" button of Save As dialog box.

    How to convert word files into PDF

    You can convert your reports, spreadsheets and any word files into Adobe Portable Document Format (.pdf). There are many free and paid software’s available to convert normal files into .pdf, for example you can download “Universal Converter Software” free trail. Using this converter you can convert your web pages, emails, books any others important documents into .pdf.
    Benefits of .PDF
    PDF files are platforms independent, for example if you are creating your resume in Microsoft windows, and you obviously wants that your resume look the same on all platforms, whether computer has Mac, Linux and Microsoft windows. PDF is the great way to send your important documents to others in same and secure ways.
    PDF can not be modified in text or formatting in new style without your permission. Internet users prefer the .pdf format because they can download it easily in Adobe Reader.
    Fellow the given steps to convert word file into PDF. 
    • First download the “Universal Converter Software” and install onto your computer.
    • Now open any word document and press the File and then click on Print option to open printer dialog box.
    • Here select the “Universal Document Converter” from the printer list and press Properties button to select the “Document to PDF, Color, and Multipage” profile.
    • Now press the Ok button to start the converting process into PDF.

    Top Free Software For Your Computer

    Antivirus and malware protection

    Most PC users realize that they need protection on their computer or may have an installed antivirus program from their computer manufacturer. What most don't realize is that there are free programs that are just as good and in some cases better than the commercial products. Below are our recommendations
    antivirus program: Avast! or AVG
    Malware and Spyware protection: Malwarebytes
    Backup solutions
    There are dozens of free and commercially available backup programs for computers. Unfortunately many of those backups are stored locally, meaning if your house were to catch fire, get robbed, or if you lost your backup discs all your data would be lost. This is why when dealing with important data we suggest users use online backup services.
    Online backup solution: Mozy or Dropbox
    Although Microsoft Internet Explorer comes pre-installed on Windows computers. There are several excellent free alternatives that everyone should try. These free alternatives can often be faster, have more options, and in many cases be more secure than Internet Explorer.
    Internet Browser: Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome
    Compression utility
    When downloading files on the Internet you'll eventually encounter a .zip, .rar, or other compressed file. Dealing with these files can be easy with our below free file compression utility.
    File compression utility: 7-Zip
    Disc ripper and creation utility
    Creating an audio or data CD/DVD, ripping the data from an audio CD, or creating a CD from a .ISO file can also be done freely using our below free recommendation.
    CD burner utility: CDBurnerXP
    E-mail is yet another service that can be done freely. Most users today use online e-mail solutions like the one listed below. However, for those still using an e-mail client such as Microsoft Outlook we strongly suggest one or both of the below suggestions.
    E-mail client: Mozilla Thunderbird
    Online e-mail: Gmail
    FTP, SFTP, and SSH Utility
    Users who maintain their own web page or need to upload or download files to or from a server will have to use an FTP utility or a SSH client. There are many commercial programs capable of doing this but our below free recommendations beats them all.
    FTP client: Filezilla
    SSH client: Putty
    Image editor, paint program, and picture organizer
    There are many great free solutions for editing, creating, and organizing your images on your computer. Many of the programs capable of doing these tasks can be several hundred dollars, but all of the below programs are completely free.
    Image editor: GIMP
    Paint program:
    Picture organizer: Google Picasa
    There are dozens of different multimedia programs with different capabilities and limitations. Below are our top free multimedia programs for watching video files and recording audio.
    Audio editing and creating tool: Audacity
    Video and DVD Player: VLC

    How to Clean Your PC Mouse

    Why? A dirty optical-mechanical mouse (mouse with a ball) can cause the mouse to be difficult to move as well as cause strange mouse movement.
    Procedure: To clean the rollers of an optical-mechanical mouse, you must first remove the bottom cover of the mouse. To do this, examine the bottom of the mouse to see what direction the mouse cover should be rotated. As you can see in the below illustration, the mouse cover must be moved counter clockwise. Place two fingers on the mouse cover and push the direction of the arrows.
    Once the cover has rotated about an inch, rotate the mouse into its normal position, covering the bottom of the mouse with one hand and the bottom should fall off including the mouse ball. If this does not occur, attempt to shake the mouse gently.
    Once the bottom cover and the ball are removed, you should be able to see three rollers located within the mouse. Use a cotton swab, finger, or fingernail to remove any substance. Usually, there will be a small line of hair and dirt in the middle of the roller, remove as much as this substance as possible.
    Once you have removed as much dirt and hair as possible, place the ball back within the mouse and place the cover back on.
    If the mouse still appears to be having the same issue, repeat the above process; if after several attempts the mouse is still having the same issues, it's likely that your mouse has other hardware issues and we recommend that it be replaced.
    Note: Cleaning your mouse pad with a damp cloth can also help improve a computer's mouse movement.
    Why? To help keep a mouse clean and germ free it can be helpful to clean the mouse.
    Procedure: Use a cloth moistened with rubbing alcohol or warm water and rub the surface of the mouse and each of its buttons.

    How to Clean Your Computer Laptop Keyboard

    The below steps are for cleaning a standard desktop keyboard. See the cleaning a laptop keyboard page for steps if you have a laptop.
    Dust, dirt, and bacteria
    The computer keyboard is often the most germ infected items in your home or office, often it will contain more bacteria than your toilet seat. Cleaning it can help remove any dangerous bacteria. Dirt, dust and hair can also build up causing the keyboard to not function properly.
    Procedure: Before cleaning the keyboard first turn off the computer or if you're using a USB keyboard unplug it. Not unplugging the keyboard can result in causing other computer problems as you may press keys that cause the computer to perform a task you don't want it to do.
    Many people clean the keyboard by turning it upside down and shaking. A more effective method is to use compressed air. Compressed air is pressurized air contained in a can with a very long nozzle. aim the air between the keys and blow away all of the dust and debris that has gathered there. A vacuum cleaner can also be used, but make sure the keyboard doesn't have loose "pop off" keys that could possibly be sucked up by the vacuum.
    If you wish to clean the keyboard more extensively you'll need to remove the keys from the keyboard.
    After the dust, dirt, and hair has been removed. Spray a disinfectant onto a cloth or use disinfectant cloths and rub each of the keys on the keyboard. As mentioned in our general cleaning tips, never spray any liquid onto the keyboard.
    Substance spilt into the keyboard
    If the keyboard has anything spilt into it (e.g. pop, cola, Pepsi, Coke, beer, wine, coffee, milk, etc.), not taking the proper steps can cause the keyboard to be destroyed.
    Procedure: Below are a few recommendations to help prevent a keyboard from becoming bad once a substance has been spilt within it.
    If anything is spilt onto the keyboard turn the computer off immediately or at the very least disconnect it from the computer. Once done quickly flip the keyboard over helping to prevent the substance from penetrating circuits. While the keyboard is upside down, shake the keyboard over a surface that can be cleaned later. While still upside down, use a cloth to help clean out what can be reached. After cleaned to the best of your ability leave the keyboard upside down for at least one night allowing it to dry. Once dry, continue cleaning the keyboard with any remaining substance.
    If after cleaning the keyboard you have keys that stick remove the keys and clean below the keys and the bottom portion of the key.
    Finally, if the keyboard still works but remains dirty or sticky before discarding the keyboard as a last resort try washing the keyboard in the dishwasher.
    If after doing all the above steps the keyboard does not function properly or at all it's recommended you buy a new keyboard.

    How to Clean CD and DVD Disc

    Why? Dirty CDs can cause read errors or cause CDs to not work at all.
    Procedure: Cleaning CDs and DVDs should be done with a cleaning kit but can also be done with a normal clean cotton cloth or shirt. When doing this with a clean cotton cloth or shirt, wipe against the tracks, starting from the middle of the CD or DVD and wiping towards the outer side as shown in the below picture. Never wipe with the tracks; doing so may put more scratches on the disc.

    It is recommended when cleaning a CD that water is used. However, if the substance on a CD cannot be removed using water, pure alcohol can also be used.

    Basic PC shortcut keys

    The below basic shortcut keys are a listing of shortcut keys that will work with almost all IBM compatible computers and software programs. It is highly recommended that all users keep a good reference of the below shortcut keys or try to memorize the below keys. Doing so will dramatically increase your productivity.
    Shortcut KeysDescription
    Alt + FFile menu options in current program.
    Alt + EEdit options in current program
    F1Universal Help in almost every Windows program.
    Ctrl + ASelect all text.
    Ctrl + XCut selected item.
    Shift + DelCut selected item.
    Ctrl + CCopy selected item.
    Ctrl + InsCopy selected item
    Ctrl + VPaste
    Shift + InsPaste
    HomeGoes to beginning of current line.
    Ctrl + HomeGoes to beginning of document.
    EndGoes to end of current line.
    Ctrl + EndGoes to end of document.
    Shift + HomeHighlights from current position to beginning of line.
    Shift + EndHighlights from current position to end of line.
    Ctrl + Left arrowMoves one word to the left at a time.
    Ctrl + Right arrow Moves one word to the right at a time.

    What is Nero


    Nero Burning ROM, also known as Nero, is a software application used for creating CDs and DVDs. Users could add data, audio and video files to CDs and DVDs or copy one disc to another. Nero also allowed users to create discs from ISO images, create bootable CDs, rip audio CDs and a number of other features. The ease-of-use that Nero provided made it a popular choice for many computer users.
    Nero was first released in 1997 by Ahead Software (now known as Nero AG). The software was commonly bundled with a new CD and DVD Rewriteable drives as a more limited functionality version. A fully functional and featured version of Nero is available to purchase at many electronic and office supply retailers, as well as online. It is available for Windows operating systems and Linux (as a separate version).

    Most alternative browsers

    Most computer users use the default browser that comes included with the computer, with Microsoft Windows this is Internet Explorer. There are several great alternative browsers that are all free to download and use and may have features your current browser does not include. Below are a few of our favorites, try one or try them all.